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How to Use, Evaluate and Cite Sources

Using information sources correctly is a necessary skill when being asked to prepare a report, write an essay or make a presentation. Books, newspapers and the internet are all examples of information sources and it is important to be aware of their use and limitations.

Bibliotek

In this article you will find a description of how to use, evaluate and cite sources of information.

Referencing Styles

There are several styles of referencing. At upper secondary school, there are no rules as to which style should be used. What is important is that you stick to ONE style. Below is an example of a reference list.

Example of Reference List

Books

Example:

Include:

Author/s, (Publication year) Title: Subtitle, Place published: Publisher

For example:

James, P.D. (2011) Death Comes to Pemberley, London: Faber and Faber Ltd. In text: (James, 2011)
Munro, A. (2012) Dear Life, London: Chatto & Windus

In text: (Munro, 2012)

Skifjeld, K., Rodgers, D., Sandor, C., Huseby E., and Løken, K.D. (2007) Global Paths, N.W. Damm & Son AS.

In text: (Skifjeld et al. 2007, p. 48)

Website

Example:

Include:

Author/s / Organisation, (Year) Title of article, Date accessed at: full internet address

For example:

Sparknotes, Literature and Study Guides, (2013) Pride and Prejudice, Accessed January 8, 2014 at: http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/pride/

In text: (Sparknotes, Literature and Study Guides, 2013)

Journal / Magazine Article

Example:

Include:

Author/s of article, (Year) Article title, Journal title, volume(issue number), date, page number

For example:

Knowles, L. (2013) New beginnings: Stonehenge, English Heritage, October 2013, p. 18.

In text: (Knowles, 2013)

No author:

The Economist, (2013) The East is Grey, volume 408, (8848), August 10th - 16th, p. 17

Newspaper Article

Example:

Include:

Author/s of article, ( Year) Title of article. Newspaper title, date, page number.

For example:

Ackerman, S. and Roberts, D. (2014) NSA phone surveillance deemed illegal, The Guardian Weekly, 31 January - 6 February, p. 9.

In text: (Ackerman and Roberts, 2014)

News / Newspaper Article from the Internet

Example:

Include:

Author/s of article, (Year) Title of article, Newspaper title, Date, Date accessed at: full internet address

For example:

Hurley, D. (2014) Can Reading Make You Smarter?, The Guardian (Culture), 23 January, Accessed 28 January 2014 at: http://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/jan/23/can-reading-make-you-smarter In text: (Hurley, 2014)
Osborne, M. (2013) Death Comes to Pemberley: Darcy takes on murder mystery, BBC: News Entertainment and Arts, 20 December, Accessed January 8, 2014 at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-25262352

In text: (Osborne, 2013)

Oral Source

DO NOT CITE IN REFERENCE LIST, ONLY IN TEXT.

Example:

For example:

In text: C. Gardiner, English Teacher, said in class on 15 January 2014 that English is a Germanic language.

Blog

Example

Include:

Author. (Year) Article title, Blog title, web log post, date, accessed date at: full internet address

For example:

Michaelson, A. (2014) BBC News; Social media transforms the textbook classroom, Teaching using web tools: Education, Lesson Plans, Technology blog, web log post, 31 January, Accessed 6 February 2014 at: http://annmic.wordpress.com/ In text: (Michaelson 2014)

In text: (Michaelson, 2014)

Digital Photograph

Example

Include:

Photographer/Institution, (Year) Title, Accessed at: internet address

For example:

Dawson, L. (2008) RMIT University students show their collections at Melbourne Spring Fashion Week, Accessed 28 January at: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rmit/2965084995/

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