Improve your language with the following list of linking words and phrases.
Linking words and phrases can be divided into three main categories: coordinators, subordinators and transitions.
Coordinators are used to join two independent clauses, usually with a comma before the coordinator. Examples of these are: and, for, so, but, yet, or and nor.
- The office is closed for the next two days, but you can still phone to leave a message.
- I forgot my computer, so I will not be able to hand in my assignment.
Subordinators join a dependent clause to an independent clause. Examples of
these are: before, when, if, because, if, unless, while, as, since, though and although.
- Matt drinks coffee because it wakes him up in the morning.
- Lucy drinks milk although it gives her a stomach ache.
- When he grows up, Charlie wants to be a teacher.
Transitions are used between two independent clauses and can express many different relationships between ideas.
- To add another idea: furthermore, moreover, besides, also, in addition
- To restate, explain or emphasize an idea: that is, in other words, in fact, actually, namely
- To give an example: for example, for instance, to illustrate
- To show a difference: in contrast, on the contrary, on the other hand, instead, however, still, otherwise
- To show the opposite of what you might expect: nevertheless, admittedly, even so, nonetheless
- To show a similarity: similarly, likewise, in the same way
- To show a result or effect: as a result, consequently, as a consequence, therefore, thus, hence, accordingly
- To show a time relationship: previously, subsequently, finally, afterward, meanwhile, first, second, etc., after that, next, since then, then, at first